Abstract Objective: In order to evaluate long-term toxicity of Combivir, we retrospectively reviewed clinical records of HIV-1 infected cases under treatment with Combivir-containing regimen and we analyzed the clinical data compared to other NRTIs-containing regimens. Study design: A total of 55 patients who were on Combivir and 39 on a control regimen were examined. Results: After starting treatment with Combivir-containing regimens viral load and CD4 + T-cell count improved as well as the control group. Rates of adverse events in Combivir group and ZDV (400 mg/day) + 3TC group were 50.9% (28/55) and 60% (12/20), respectively. Some of these Japanese patients who started Combivir regimen as a first-line HAART (primary Combivir group) showed some decrease in hemoglobin levels or neutrophil counts within 6 months. However, a significant recovery of these indices of hematological toxicities occurred in patients who continued the regimen for 18–24 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the safety of 600 mg of ZDV is similar to 400 mg/day of ZDV and the existence of mechanisms that compensate for anemia and for the neutropenia associated with long-term use of Combivir.