Abstract Our objective was to analyze the evolutionary paths of cultivated diploid Brassica species and a few related wild species (tribe Brassiceae) in relation to Arabidopsis thaliana (tribe Arabidae), using the Rps2 sequence. Rps2 confers resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in A. thaliana. We found that similar to Arabidopsis, the Rps2 homolog in Brassica species is present in a single copy. Primers based in the Rps2 sequence amplified Rps2 homologs from the other species. Maximum-parsimony analysis based on number of nucleotide substitutions yielded a single tree, grouping the species as expected from other evolutionary inferences. Age of divergence between the two tribes was within the range of previous estimates. Indels in the different sequences were also useful for distinguishing some of the species. The Rps2 gene is a useful phylogenetic tool for more comprehensive studies of the species of Brasicaceae.