Background Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241). We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002) during HD sessions. Conclusion Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions.