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Warn me now or inform me later: Drivers' acceptance of real-time and post-drive distraction mitigation systems

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2012.08.002
  • Driver Distraction
  • Distraction Mitigation
  • Feedback
  • Technology Acceptance Model
  • Design


Abstract Vehicle crashes caused by driver distraction are of increasing concern. One approach to reduce the number of these crashes mitigates distraction by giving drivers feedback regarding their performance. For these mitigation systems to be effective, drivers must trust and accept them. The objective of this study was to evaluate real-time and post-drive mitigation systems designed to reduce driver distraction. The real-time mitigation system used visual and auditory warnings to alert the driver to distracting behavior. The post-drive mitigation system coached drivers on their performance and encouraged social conformism by comparing their performance to peers. A driving study with 36 participants between the ages of 25 and 50 years old (M=34) was conducted using a high-fidelity driving simulator. An extended Technology Acceptance Model captured drivers' acceptance of mitigation systems using four constructs: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, unobtrusiveness, and behavioral intention to use. Perceived ease of use was found to be the primary determinant and perceived usefulness the secondary determinant of behavioral intention to use, while the effect of unobtrusiveness on intention to use was fully mediated by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. The real-time system was more obtrusive and less easy to use than the post-drive system. Although this study included a relatively narrow age range (25 to 50 years old), older drivers found both systems more useful. These results suggest that informing drivers with detailed information of their driving performance after driving is more acceptable than warning drivers with auditory and visual alerts while driving.

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