Abstract The contribution focuses on the personal antecedents of the enjoyment of learning in mathematics. Using latent-change models, it tests the assumption of the control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2000, 2006) that positive changes in perceived control and perceived value lead to positive changes in the enjoyment of learning. Data are analysed of 431 students (three measurement time points in the sixth school year). The results confirm the change–change assumption: positive changes in perceived control and perceived value longitudinally predict positive changes in the enjoyment of learning. Thus, an important prerequisite for a further assumption of the theory is fulfilled, namely that a positive pedagogical–educational exertion of influence on the perceived control and perceived value represents a way in which to increase students' enjoyment of learning.