Abstract Splenocytes from adult F1 mice were assayed for their capacity to induce popliteal lymph node enlargement (PLNE) when inoculated in the footpad of identical or reciprocal F1 hosts. The results obtained showed that: (i) T Lyt 1 + splenocytes from adult F1 hybrids were able to induce a significant PLNE when inoculated in reciprocal but not in identical F1 hosts. (ii) Foster-nursing of F1 hybrids on mothers from the paternal strain was able to induce permanent alterations in the ability of their T splenocytes to induce PLNE: Lyt 1 + splenocytes were able to induce significant PLNE in identical but not in reciprocal F1 hosts. Thus, the ability of T splenocytes from foster-nursed F1 hybrids to induce PLNE resembled that observed in reciprocal F1 hybrids nursed by their own mothers, (iii) PLNE was accompanied by cell proliferation involving host B and T lymphocytes. (iv) This PLNE could be detected using F1 hybrids from parental strains differing or not at H-2 antigens but involving a parental strain expressing the stimulatory Mls a allele and a parental strain bearing the nonstimulatory Mls b allele while it was not observed in F1 hybrids from parental strains sharing Mls a antigens.