Iodine is an important element essential for higher animals. A large part of the global human population suffers from a lack of iodine; elucidation of transfer and mobility of this element in the environment, water, soil, air and in organisms is thus very important. The aim of this work was the elaboration and optimisation of the method for determination of very low concentrations of iodine in the waters. The mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) technique was used. It has been shown that using of different filter types during sample preparation had no significant effect on the content of impurities in the filtered sample. Antimony was recommended as an internal standard, despite commonly used elements (indium or tellurium). Samples were not preserved because nitric acid caused volatilization of iodine from the sample and the addition of aqueous ammonia had no significant effect. The optimised method was tested on several groups of water samples, including precipitation, surface water and lysimetric waters. From autumn 2009 to summer 2010, a part of the Blanice River (Šumava Mountains, South Bohemia) was sampled. The average content of iodine in samples ranged from 1.48 ? 0.30 ?g?dm-3 (April 2010) to 3.05 ? 0.38 ?g?dm-3 (July 2010). The average content of iodine in samples from all tributaries of the Blanice River ranged between 2.52 ? 1.63 ?g?dm-3 (March 2010) and 3.67 ? 1.37 ?g?dm-3 (July 2010). The concentration of iodine in the monitored surface waters did not change significantly along the flow of the river. The other two streams were sampled near Rapotín village (Jeseníky Mountains, north Moravia). The average contents of iodine were as follow: Annov (upper stream) 1.60 ? 0.65 ?g?dm-3, Annov (lower stream) 1.88 ? 1.18 ?g?dm-3, Salaš (upper stream) 1.77 ? 0.92 ?g?dm-3, Salaš (lower stream) 1.42 ? 0.58 ?g?dm-3. Generally, the data showed that considering iodine, the area of Šumava had slightly higher levels than those observed in the Jeseníky Mountains. Precipitation collected in the South Bohemia (Arnoštov village and city of České Budějovice) and in Jeseníky (Rapotín) contained less iodine compared to surface waters, and rarely exceeded 3 micrograms per liter of water. The situation has changed in the spring of 2010, because of the occurrence of volcanic dust and ash over the Czech Republic. This volcanic cloud came from the sudden activity of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano (Iceland). In the mentioned period, the contents of iodine in precipitation were increased several times at all sample collection sites. This is an indirect evidence that iodine could be released during volcanic eruptions and transferred over long distances through the atmosphere. It turned out that the wastewater treatment plant can eliminate iodine in wastewater only partially. However, the wastewater treatment plants in the monitored region were too small to evaluate the overall impact on the environment. The maximum iodine content at the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant Prachatice town (South Bohemia) was 28.5 ?g?dm-3, which is several times higher than natural levels in the Živný stream, to which the treated water flows. Lysimetric water samples were collected from lysimeters installed in three nearby plots in Arnoštov village (Šumava, South Bohemia). The highest concentrations of iodine were found on plot where cattle were grazed. These values were significantly higher (average 4.38 ? 1.74 ?g?dm-3) than those obtained from a site used as hay meadow (average 2.69 ? 1.19 ?g?dm-3) or an untreated meadow (average 2.25 ? 1.39 ?g?dm-3). Iodine therefore probably originated from the urine and feces of grazed cattle. This thesis contributes to the total knowledge of iodine, particularly to the part concerning determination of iodine in the hydrosphere.