The tissue distribution of a polypeptide purified from pig ileal mucosa tentatively called porcine ileal polypeptide (PIP) and known to have potent acid secretagogue activity has been studied with immunohistochemical methods together with extraction of different tissues followed by radioimmunoassay for PIP content. Histochemically the peptide is found in superficial epithelial cells in the mucosa of the distal 20% of the small intestine and to some extent in the mucosa of the urinary tract. There is no staining of goblet cells or crypt cells. The staining in the urinary tract mucosa is due to antigenic peptides with Mr identical to PIP. While the presence of PIP in the ileum is compatible with a function as an enterooxyntin, it is not possible at present to explain the physiologic role of PIP entirely as a hormone regulating acid secretion in light of the immunohistochemical distribution.