Abstract Intramuscular hemangiomas are idiopathic lesions which are either tumoral or developmental in origin. A close association of abnormal blood vessels with nerve fibers is found and may suggest that nerves have a primary inciting role in the development of these lesions. In the current study, the number of nerve fibers in different zones around the tumors, as well as the type of neuropeptides present in these fibers, was quantitatively assessed by computer-assisted image analysis of immunohistochemical staining of histological slides. The number of nerve fibers as determined by positive staining by anti-protein S-100 antibodies was found to be elevated in the immediate vicinity of the abnormal blood vessels. The density of the nerve fibers rapidly declined with increasing distance from the hemangiomas, reaching normal values at distances of over 2 mm. Furthermore, hemangiomas contain a significantly higher number of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and Met-enkephalin-positive fibers. The most significant rise in number is that of CGRP-positive fibers. This neuropeptide is a known mitogen, which could be responsible for the growth of the hemangiomatous blood vessels. Substance P is a nociceptive neurotransmitter and its presence can explain the pain which often accompanies even tiny intramuscular hemangiomas.