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Simple Dislocation of the Superior Tibio-Fibular Joint: Report of Two Cases

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  • Case Reports
  • Medicine


Exercise and Shoulder Pain temp v2 ACSM Current Comment Exercise and Shoulder Pain Introduction The human shoulder is an intricate system of bones, joints, connective tissues and muscles that place the arm and hand in a position that allows them to function. It derives its stability from a group of four small muscles (known as the rotator cuff) and another five muscles that stabilize the scapula (shoulder blade) and guide the entire shoulder joint along the rib cage during arm motions. Some experts state that the upper extremities can assume more than 1,600 positions in three-dimensional space at the shoulder joint. When working properly, the shoulder makes activities like throwing, hammering, shoveling, raking, painting, climbing, lifting, swimming and waving possible. A painful shoulder can make routine activities like brushing your teeth, bathing, dressing, sleeping, and combing your hair extremely difficult. Chronic shoulder pain (lasting more than a few weeks to a few months or more) is the most common upper extremity problem in recreational and professional athletes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 13.7 million Americans sought medical care for shoulder pain in 2003 alone. Shoulder Structure The shoulder is a ball-and-socket joint and sacrifices some of the stability afforded the hip joint for a higher level of mobility. It lacks a deep socket; instead, the ball-shaped humeral (arm bone) head sits or adjoins a shallow, saucer-like socket (glenoid fossa), located slightly to the front and side surface of your shoulder blade. The structural arrangement of the shoulder joint contributes to its highly mobile and fairly unstable status. Because the head (ball) of the humerus (arm bone) is two-thirds larger than the glenoid fossa (the narrow socket), the shoulder resembles a golf ball on a tee. Shoulder Function Raising your arm overhead requires a fine blend of shoulder mobility with d

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