Abstract Purposes The main aim of the study was to answer two questions: what are the concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A-I (apolipoprotein A-I), apo B (apolipoprotein B) and Lp(a) (lipoprotein(a)) in serum of patients with primary hypertension and with hyperhomocysteinemia? Is there any correlation between the concentration of homocysteine in blood serum and investigated lipid and lipoprotein parameters in patients with primary hypertension? Material/methods We investigated 42 patients with primary hypertension, aged 22–57. The control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. The concentration of homocysteine in serum was evaluated using immunochemical method (FPIA – Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay). The concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in blood serum were estimated using enzymatic method. Apo A-I, apo B and lipoprotein(a) were assessed using nephelometric method. Results The analysis of the results revealed statistically significant lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and apo A-I in blood serum of patients with primary hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia than in the population with hypertension and normohomocysteinemia. Negative correlation between homocysteine and HDL-cholesterol as well as apo A-I has been revealed. Conclusion Quantitative analysis of the concentration of lipids and lipoproteins in blood serum in patients with primary hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia may suggest that this type of human population might be more susceptible to atherosclerosis than those with primary hypertension and normal values of homocysteine.