Very few previous studies have looked at brand identification, which is surprising considering it is such an important variable to influence brand loyalty. This study investigates the influences of brand personality congruence and reputation on brand identification and loyal behaviour. A theoretical model is proposed and evaluated with a sample of car owners in Germany. It was found that brand personality congruence and reputation affect brand identification, which in turn impacts on brand loyalty. Furthermore, it was shown that brand identification only partially mediates the influences of brand personality congruence and reputation as these variables also affect brand loyalty directly. The study provides important managerial and theoretical implications.