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Ocular Features in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type: A Clinical and In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

Authors
Journal
American Journal of Ophthalmology
0002-9394
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
154
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2012.03.023
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Medicine

Abstract

Purpose To investigate ocular anomalies in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT). Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Methods Forty-four eyes of 22 consecutive patients with an established diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT and 44 eyes of 22 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Administration of a standardized questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index) and a complete ophthalmologic examination, including assessment of best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, indirect ophthalmoscopy, tear-film break-up time, Schirmer I testing, axial length and anterior chamber depth measurement, corneal topography, corneal pachymetry, and confocal microscopy. Main outcome measures included comparing ocular anomalies in JHS/EDS-HT and control eyes. Results JHS/EDS-HT patients reported dry eye symptoms more commonly than controls (P < .0001). Scores of tear-film break-up time and Schirmer I test were significantly lower in JHS/EDS-HT eyes (P < .0001). Minor lens opacities were significantly more common in the JHS/EDS-HT group (13.6%; P < .05). Pathologic myopia with abnormal vitreous was found in 7 JHS/EDS-HT eyes (15.9%) and 0 controls (P = .01). Corneas were significantly steeper and the best-fit sphere index was significantly higher in JHS/EDS-HT group (P < .01). By confocal microscopy, the JHS/EDS-HT group showed lower density of cells in the superficial epithelium (P < .001) and higher density of stromal keratocytes in anterior and posterior stroma (P < .0001). Conclusions The most consistent association of eye anomalies in the JHS/EDS-HT group included xerophthalmia, steeper corneas, pathologic myopia, and vitreous abnormalities, as well as a higher rate of minor lens opacities. These findings indicate the need for ophthalmologic survey in the assessment and management of patients with JHS/EDS-HT.

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