Plasmid 6.4 kbp DNA, 14 kbp DNA, lambda phage particles, all of which contained herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) gene, or IgM molecules, were mixed with erythrocyte membranes and treated with neutral detergent. The transparent mixture was diluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), followed by centrifugation to collect membrane vesicles containing the large macromolecules. 10–15% of 6.4 kbp, 3 % of 14 kbp, 4–7% of the lambda phage particles and 14.5% of IgM were trapped within erythrocyte membrane vesicles. The membrane vesicles containing these molecules were fused with L cells, or rat F2408#20 cells, both of which are deficient in thymidine kinase activity. In each case, transformants were obtained. 2×10 5–7×10 5 phage PFU or 1.5×10 6–8×10 7 DNA molecules were required to obtain one transformant from L cells, but 2–3×10 7 phage PFU or 2×10 9–1×10 10 DNA molecules were required for one transformant from rat cells. Number of colonies which transiently expressed TK genes in L cells was also determined by autoradiography. The ratio of stable transformants to colonies positive for transient expression in cells treated with low doses of DNA or lambda phage was 46–68%. The transformation efficiency of human fibroblast cells by pSV2-gpt DNA trapped in erythrocyte membrane vesicles was less than that of L cells by HSV-TK DNA, but almost the same as that of rat cells by HSV-TK DNA.