Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the interaction of malocclusion (open bite or increased overjet) combined with inadequate lip coverage strengthens its association with traumatic dental injury (TDI) in the primary teeth of preschool children compared to the presence of malocclusion alone. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 376 children aged 3659 months who attended the National Day of Childrens Vaccination. Presence of TDI, tooth discoloration, and sinus tract were evaluated in the children. Variables associated with occlusion were also evaluated. A Poisson regression analysis was performed to verify the association between the explanatory variables and TDI as well as possible interactions among the variables. Then, the prevalence ratio was calculated. Results: The prevalence of TDI was 27.7%. The maxillary central incisor was the most affected tooth, without differences between the right and left sides. Boys had more dental trauma than girls (P = 0.04). The most common TDI was crown fracture restricted to the enamel (58.4%). Children with a combination of anterior open bite or increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage presented a higher prevalence of TDI than when the malocclusions were presented alone (P < 0.05). The same trends were observed when we included, in the final adjusted model, increased overjet instead of open bite. Conclusions: Anterior malocclusions of primary teeth such as increased overjet and anterior open bite are statistically significantly associated with dental trauma only when inadequate lip coverage is also present.