Abstract Background Duct-to-duct reconstruction is theoretically suitable for short segmental defects of the bile duct. This technique would also be useful, without jeopardizing the curability, in selected cases with hepatic malignancies requiring concomitant liver and bile duct resection. Methods For biliary reconstruction after hepatectomy, duct-to-duct reconstruction was performed in 4 patients at our institution between 1994 and 2004. The surgical techniques used are presented, along with the results of evaluation of the outcome, including postoperative and long-term morbidity and survival. Results Duct-to-duct reconstruction was safely performed in the 4 patients with the defects ranging in size from 10 to 19 mm. None of the cases developed local recurrence at the anastomotic site. None of the cases developed stenosis of the anastomotic site either, but cholangitis occurred in 1 patient. Conclusions Duct-to-duct reconstruction for short segmental defects after the removal of hepatic malignant tumors is feasible with less operative and long-term morbidity. It is essential to select patients carefully when thinking of performing duct-to-duct anastomosis without complication and cancer infiltration.