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Efficacy of injectable andpour-onmicrodose ivermectin in the treatment of goat warble fly infestation byPrzhevalskiana silenus(Diptera, Oestridae)

Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.07.020
  • Warble Fly Infestation
  • Przhevalskiana Silenus
  • Goat
  • Ivermectin
  • Microdose
  • Efficacy
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Residues
  • Medicine


Abstract The prophylactic efficacy of microdoses of injectable and pour-on ivermectin formulations against larval stages of Przhevalskiana silenus was assessed in naturally infected goats in the region of Calabria (southern Italy). Sixty-eight goats from two goat farms were divided into five groups: one group remained untreated, while the other four groups were treated with microdoses of ivermectin (5 and 10 μg/kg injectable formulation and 10 and 20 μg/kg pour-on formulation). The microdoses of ivermectin were fully effective in the treatment of goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) as no larvae emerged from the warbles in the treated groups, while all the larvae emerged in the control groups. Irrespective of the type of formulation used, the difference between the treated groups and the control group was statistically significant ( P<0.001). By contrast, no statistical differences were found between the goats treated with the injectable formulation and those receiving the pour-on applications, and between the two doses of the injectable and pour-on formulations used. Given the plasma concentrations it attains at its lowest dose (0.052–0.042 ng/ml for the injectable formulation and 0.030 ng/ml for the pour-on) the injectable formulation seems to offer the most reliable route for the administration of ivermectin microdoses and it is acceptable for milk consumption. The introduction of ivermectin in the early eighties and the use of microdoses in some cases have made it possible to control cattle hypodermosis in large areas of Europe. As with cattle hypodermosis, the administration of ivermectin microdoses in goats is particularly interesting because of the low costs involved and the low levels of residues found in goat milk; it may thus constitute the basis for GWFI control campaigns in areas where the disease is prevalent.

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