Abstract Thyroid hormone concentrations, hepatic enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) were evaluated in Wistar rats (dams and offspring) after treatment by gavage on gestation day (GD) 6 with a single low dose of either 60 or 300 μg PBDE-99/kg body weight (bw), respectively. Tissue concentration analysis confirmed that PBDE-99 is persistent in rodents as significant amounts of the parent compound were detected in adipose tissue 37 days after exposure. The dose of 300 μg PBDE-99/kg bw reduced thyroxin (T4) concentration in dams at the beginning of lactation (post-gestational day [PGD] 1), and caused a slight reduction in T4 on PGD 22, although not statistically significant. In offspring, reduced T4 was observed only at PND 22, probably due to cumulative effects of PBDE-99 during lactation. PBDEs have been shown to reduce T4 concentrations in several studies, but this is the first study demonstrating endocrine disruption at low doses. The adipose tissue concentration of PBDE-99 measured in this study was close to those reported for PBDE-99 in non-occupationally exposed humans. In addition, we have previously reported permanent changes in the reproductive systems and locomotor activity of male and female offspring using these same dosages.