Abstract The mechanical behavior of elastomeric materials is known to be rate-dependent and to exhibit hysteresis upon cyclic loading. Although these features of the rubbery constitutive response are well-recognized and important to its function, few models attempt to quantify these aspects of response perhaps due to the complex nature of the behavior and its apparent inconsistency with regard to current reasonably successful models of rubber elasticity. In this paper a detailed experimental investigation probing the material response of carbon black filled Chloroprene rubber subjected to different time-dependent strain histories is presented. Some of the key observations from the experiments are: (1) both filled and unfilled elastomers show significant amounts of hysteresis during cyclic loading; (2) the amount of carbon black particles does not strongly influence the normalized amount of hysteresis; (3) both filled and unfilled elastomers are strain-rate dependent and the rate dependence is higher during the uploading than during the unloading; (4) at fixed strain, the stress is observed to approach the same equilibrium level with relaxation time whether loading or unloading. Based on the experimental data a new constitutive model has been developed. The foundation of the model is that the mechanical behavior can be decomposed into two parts: an equilibrium network corresponding to the state that is approached in long time stress relaxation tests; and a second network capturing the non-linear rate-dependent deviation from the equilibrium state. The time-dependence of the second network is further assumed to be governed by the reptational motion of molecules having the ability to significantly change conformation and thereby relaxing the overall stress state. By comparing the predictions from the proposed three-dimensional constitutive model with experimental data for uniaxial compression and plane strain compression we conclude that the constitutive model predicts rate-dependence and relaxation behavior well.