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Pupa and Puparium-Chapter 216

Elsevier Inc.
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-374144-8.00225-3


Publisher Summary This chapter describes the pupa stage in insect life cycle. Pupa is the stage in the development of holometabolous insects between the mature larva and the adult wherein major morphological reorganization takes place. Pupation usually occurs in a protected location (in a cell or cocoon), but in some groups, such as many butterflies, the pupa (chrysalis) is suspended openly and is usually well camouflaged by its shape and color. There are two basic kinds of pupae, exarate and obtect. An exarate pupa has free appendages. An obtect pupa has the appendages adhering to the body wall. Most Lepidoptera, most lower Diptera, some chrysomelid and staphylinid beetles, and many chalcidoid Hymenoptera have obtect pupae; nearly all other pupae are exarate. Most pupae are inactive, their body movements often limited to the abdominal segments. However, pupae in some groups are capable of locomotion, and some have functional mandibles that enable them to cut their way out of the pupal cell, cocoon, or chamber. These active pupae are sometimes referred to as pharate adults because the adult is enclosed in the pupal cuticle.

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