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Quantum effects in cryogenic microwave voltage amplifiers

Authors
Journal
Solid-State Electronics
0038-1101
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
22
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/0038-1101(79)90148-5
Disciplines
  • Physics

Abstract

Abstract It is shown that in cryogenic microwave voltage amplifiers the standard definition of the noise figure F can be used and that it leads to the classical result without quantum effects. However, the available output noise power P av of such an amplifier with available gain G av is found to be FkTΔfG av( E kT ) , where E = 1 2 hf + hf [ exp ( hf kT ) − 1] is the average energy of an harmonic oscillator of frequency f at the temperature T and E kT is the quantum correction factor for thermal nose and shot noise. A discussion shows that this quantum effect might be measurable at 50–100 GHz and T = 4-2° K.

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