Abstract Background The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are rare genetic disorders caused by mutations in lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we analyzed a total of 48 patients including MPSI (n=6), MPSII (n=18), MPSIIIA (n=11), MPSIVA (n=3), and MPSVI (n=10). Methods In MPS patients, urinary GAGs were colorimetrically assayed. Enzyme activity was quantified by colorimetric and fluorimetric assays. To find mutations, all IDUA, IDS, SGSH, GALNS, and ARSB exons and intronic flanks were sequenced. New mutations were functionally assessed by reconstructing mutant alleles with site-directed mutagenesis followed with expression of wild-type and mutant genetic variants in CHO cells, measuring enzymatic activity, and Western blot analysis of protein expression of normal and mutated enzymes in cell lysates. Results A total of five novel mutations were found including p.Asn348Lys (IDUA) in MPSI, p.Tyr240Cys (GALNS) in MPSIVA, and three ARSB mutations (p.Gln110*, p.Asn262Lysfs*14, and pArg315*) in MPSVI patients. In case of mutations p.Asn348Lys, p.Asn262Lysfs*14, and p.Gln110*, no mutant protein was detected while activity of the mutant protein was <1% of that of the normal enzyme. For p.Tyr240Cys, a trace of mutant protein was observed with a remnant activity of 3.6% of the wild-type GALNS activity. For pArg315*, a truncated 30-kDa protein that had 7.9% of activity of the normal ARSB was detected. Conclusions These data further enrich our knowledge of the genetic background of MPSs.