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The Roles of Parasitoid Foraging for Hosts, Food and Mates in the Augmentative Control of Tephritidae

Molecular Diversity Preservation International
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  • Tephritidae
  • Braconidae
  • <Em>Anastrepha</Em>
  • <Em> Ceratitis</Em>
  • <Em> Bactrocera</Em>
  • <Em> </Em>Opiinae
  • Figitidae
  • Signals
  • Cues
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Geography


Ultimately, the success of augmentative fruit fly biological control depends upon the survival, dispersal, attack rate and multi-generational persistence of mass-reared parasitoids in the field. Foraging for hosts, food and mates is fundamental to the above and, at an operational level, the choice of the parasitoid best suited to control a particular tephritid in a certain environment, release rate estimates and subsequent monitoring of effectiveness. In the following we review landscape-level and microhabitat foraging preferences, host/fruit ranges, orientation through environmental cues, host vulnerabilities/ovipositor structures, and inter and intraspecific competition. We also consider tephritid parasitoid mating systems and sexual signals, and suggest the directions of future research.

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