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Non-canonical CRP sites control competence regulons in Escherichia coli and many other γ-proteobacteria

Oxford University Press
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  • Molecular Biology
  • Biology


gkl734 6001..6014 Non-canonical CRP sites control competence regulons in Escherichia coli and many other g-proteobacteria Andrew D. S. Cameron1 and Rosemary J. Redfield2,* 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology and 2Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Received August 14, 2006; Revised September 20, 2006; Accepted September 21, 2006 ABSTRACT Escherichia coli’s cAMP receptor protein (CRP), the archetypal bacterial transcription factor, regulates over a hundred promoters by binding 22 bp symmetrical sites with the consensus core half-site TGTGA. However, Haemophilus influenzae has two types of CRP sites, one like E.coli’s and one with the core sequence TGCGA that regulates genes required for DNA uptake (natural competence). Only the latter ‘CRP-S’ sites require both CRP and the coregulator Sxy for activation. To our knowledge, the TGTGA and TGCGA motifs are the first example of one transcription factor having two distinct binding-site motifs. Here we show that CRP-S promoters are widespread in the g-proteobacteria and demonstrate their Sxy-dependence in E.coli. Orthologs of most H.influenzae CRP-S-regulated genes are ubiquitous in the five best-studied g-proteobacteria families, Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae and Xanthomonadaceae. Phylogenetic footprinting identified CRP-S sites in the promoter regions of the Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae and Vibrionaceae orthologs, and canonical CRP sites in orthologs of genes known to be Sxy-independent in H.influenzae. Bandshift experiments confirmed that E.coli CRP-S sequences are low affinity binding sites for CRP, and mRNA analysis showed that they require CRP, cAMP (CRP’s allosteric effector) and Sxy for gene induction. This work suggests not only that the g-proteobacteria share a common DNA uptake mechanism, but also that, in the three best studied families, their competence regulons share both CRP-S specificity and Sxy dependence. INTRODUCTION The Escherich

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