Background Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention are both associated with cognitive decline, but limited data are available on long-term outcomes. This study compared long-term cognitive outcomes between patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A multicenter trial in the Netherlands randomized 280 patients to percutaneous coronary intervention or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Cognitive performance 7.5 years after randomization was assessed through a battery of 9 neuropsychologic tests and summarized into a combined Z-score. Results After 7.5 years, cognitive assessment could be performed in 81% of the 249 surviving patients. Better cognitive performance was observed in the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group (combined Z-score 0.11 for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting versus -0.17 for percutaneous coronary intervention; difference 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.47, p < 0.01). However, this difference became nonsignificant (Z-score difference 0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.01 to 0.29, p = 0.08) after multivariable adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions At 7.5 years follow-up, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting patients had a similar or perhaps even better cognitive performance compared with percutaneous coronary intervention patients.