Abstract Patients are isolated in the hospital during the neutropenic phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We challenged this by allowing patients to be treated at home. A nurse from the unit visited and checked the patient. One hundred forty-six patients treated at home were compared with matched hospital control subjects. Oral intake was intensified from September 2006 and improved (P = .002). We compared 4 groups: home care and control subjects before and after September 2006. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of grades II to IV was 15% in the "old" home care group, which was significantly lower than that of 32% to 44% in the other groups (P < .03). Transplantation-related mortality, chronic GVHD, and relapse were similar in the groups. The "new" home care patients spent fewer days at home (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, GVHD of grades 0 to I was associated with home care (hazard ratio [HR], 2.46; P = .02) and with days spent at home (HR, .92; P = .005) but not with oral nutrition (HR, .98; P = .13). Five-year survival was 61% in the home care group as compared with 49% in the control subjects (P = .07). Home care is safe. Home care and many days spent at home were correlated with a low risk of acute GVHD.