Abstract Oscillatory shear rheometry at small strains was used to investigate the effects of composition (concentration of macromer, crosslinker, initiator/accelerator, and filler) on the gel point and ultimate storage modulus of poly(l-lactide- co-ethylene oxide- co-fumarate) (PLEOF) hydrogels. PLEOF in situ polymerizing hydrogels can be used as biodegradable scaffolds for cell encapsulation and tissue regeneration. The time evolution of the viscoelastic properties of the polymerizing mixture during the sol–gel transition was monitored using mechanical rheometry. According to the results, while the ultimate storage modulus linearly increased with the concentration of methylene bisacrylamide (BISAM) crosslinker, the values of the storage and loss moduli at the gel point were insensitive to the concentration of BISAM. Similar behavior was observed for PLEOF hydrogels reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.