Aim. To compare targeted neonatal hearing screening (TNHS) and universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) since many developing countries, including Egypt, implement selective screening for high-risk neonates. Methods. 150 neonates were assessed; 50 full terms consecutively admitted to the well-baby nursery and 100 neonates consecutively admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Ain Shams University. Patients were further subdivided into high-risk group which included 50 neonates with multiple risk factors for hearing loss and low risk group which included 50 neonates with only one risk factor. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were used for hearing screening. Auditory brain response (ABR) was performed 3 months later for failed TEOAEs. Results. The most frequent risk factor was consanguinity (46%). In the well-baby population, 16% failed TEOAEs. In the NICU, 30% of the low risk and 38% of the high risk groups failed TEOAEs. Regarding ABR, failed results were 12%, 10%, and 8% in the high-risk, low-risk, and healthy groups, respectively. Conclusion. The use of TNHS would have missed 8% of neonates from the well-baby group who actually had PCHL (permanent congenital hearing loss). The use of UNHS would identify all cases with PCHL, allowing for early intervention and follow-up.