Affordable Access

The role of Ras and Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR-1) in breast cancer in progression and metastasis /

McGill University
Publication Date
  • Breast Neoplasms -- Pathology.
  • Neoplasm Metastasis -- Physiopathology.
  • Ras Proteins -- Metabolism.
  • Protein Kinases -- Metabolism.
  • Signal Transduction -- Physiology.
  • Biology


The Ras signaling cascade is a vital component in the processes that mediate cell survival, growth, differentiation and transformation through activation of MAP kinase (mitogen-activated protein kinase). The recent discovery of a new scaffold of the Ras signaling pathway, Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR), is found to be a positive effector of Ras signaling which further contributes to proliferation and transformation in the ERK/MAPK pathway. This thesis describes the roles of Ras and Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR-1) in regulating the expression of tumor promoting genes such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in the development and progression of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. Ras and KSR increase the proliferative capacity and migration of MDAMB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro. In contrast, Ras and KSR decrease the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, uPA gene expression levels do not correlate with uPA protein expression levels suggesting a possible mutation induced by KSR and/or Ras. In vivo studies reveal that Ras and KSR increase tumor volume in mice, as well as more advanced osteolytic bone metastases. Collectively, these results indicate that Ras and KSR play significant roles in breast cancer development and metastasis.

There are no comments yet on this publication. Be the first to share your thoughts.