Abstract Findings regarding type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and neighborhood-level characteristics are mixed, with few US studies examining the influence of race/ethnicity. We conducted an ecologic study using SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study data to explore the association of neighborhood characteristics and T1DM incidence. 2002–2003 incident cases among youth at four SEARCH centers were included. Residential addresses were geocoded to US Census Tract. Standardized incidence ratios tended to increase with increasing education and median household income. Results from Poisson regression mixed models were similar and stable across race/ethnic groups and population density. Our study suggests a relationship of T1DM incidence with neighborhood-level socioeconomic status, independent of individual-level race/ethnic differences.