Transient renal ischemia induces both inflammatory and fibrotic processes and is a major cause of acute and chronic renal insufficiency. Study of ischemia-reperfusion injury in gene-targeted mice has identified multiple factors responsible for inflammation, whereas mechanisms underlying fibrosis remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate by both gene inactivation and target protein blockade that a single chemokine receptor subtype, the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, is able to reduce both inflammation and fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the mouse, leading to partially preserved renal function after injury. The mechanism involves selective effects in the outer medulla, including reduced accumulation of macrophages and reduced expression of the macrophage and platelet-derived fibrogenic protein platelet-derived growth factor-B. CX3CR1 is the first chemokine receptor shown to contribute to fibrogenesis in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.