Abstract Gas embolism is a rare life-threatening complication of obstetric or gynecologic procedures, arising as a result of gas bubbles being introduced into the circulation via severed blood vessels. Extensive brain damage and acute cardiovascular collapse will lead to a fatal outcome. A favourable outcome depends on early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Hyperbaric oxygenation, which reduces bubble size and increases the supply of oxygen to hypoxic tissues, is the definitive treatment for gas embolism. We report four cases of gas embolism complicating obstetric or gynecologic procedures which were treated at the Israel Naval Medical Institute followed by an updated review of the literature.