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Validation of the turkish version of the centre for epidemiologic studies depression scale (ces-d) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

BMC Medical Research Methodology
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-109
  • Research Article
  • Medicine


Background Depression is a common co-morbid health problem in patients with diabetes that is underrecognised. Current international guidelines recommend screening for depression in patients with diabetes. Yet, few depression screening instruments have been validated for use in this particular group of patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A sample of 151 Turkish outpatients with type 2 diabetes completed the CES-D, the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID). Explanatory factor analyses, various correlations and Cronbach's alpha were investigated to test the validity and reliability of the CES-D in Turkish diabetes outpatients. Results The original four-factor structure proposed by Radloff was not confirmed. Explanatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor structure representing two subscales: (1) depressed mood combined with somatic symptoms of depression and (2) positive affect. However, one item showed insufficient factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha of the total score was high (0.88), as were split-half coefficients (0.77-0.90). The correlation of the CES-D with the WHO-5 was the strongest (r = -0.70), and supported concurrent validity. Conclusion The CES-D appears to be a valid measure for the assessment of depression in Turkish diabetes patients. Future studies should investigate its sensitivity and specificity as well as test-retest reliability.

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