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Multi-stack silicon-direct wafer bonding for 3D MEMS manufacturing

Authors
Journal
Sensors and Actuators A Physical
0924-4247
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
103
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/s0924-4247(02)00332-1
Keywords
  • Multi-Stack Wafer Bonding
  • Wafer Bonding
  • 3D Structure
  • Silicon-Direct Bonding
Disciplines
  • Chemistry
  • Mathematics

Abstract

Abstract Multi-stack wafer bonding is one of the most promising fabrication techniques for creating three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. However, there are several bonding issues that have to be faced and overcome to build multilayered structures successfully. Among these are: (1) chemical residues on surfaces to be bonded originating from the fabrication processes prior to bonding; (2) increased stiffness due to multiple bonded wafers and/or thick wafers; (3) bonding tool effects; (4) defect propagation to other wafer-levels after high-temperature annealing cycles. The problems and the solutions presented here are readily applicable to any microelectromechanical systems project involving the fabrication of multi-stack structures of two or more wafers containing intricate geometries and large etched areas.

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