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Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species

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BioMed Central
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PMC
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  • Research
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  • Biology

Abstract

1743-8454-1-2.fm ral ss BioMed CentCerebrospinal Fluid Research Open AcceResearch Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species Miles Johnston*, Andrei Zakharov, Christina Papaiconomou, Giselle Salmasi and Dianna Armstrong Address: Neuroscience Program, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5, Canada Email: Miles Johnston* - [email protected]; Andrei Zakharov - [email protected]; Christina Papaiconomou - [email protected]; Giselle Salmasi - [email protected]; Dianna Armstrong - [email protected] * Corresponding author Abstract Background: The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to humans has never been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the CSF and nasal lymph associations in human and non- human primates with those observed in other mammalian species. Methods: Studies were performed in sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Immediately after sacrifice (or up to 7 hours after death in humans), yellow Microfil was injected into the CSF compartment. The heads were cut in a sagittal plane. Results: In the seven species examined, Microfil was observed primarily in the subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulbs and cribriform plate. The contrast agent followed the olfactory nerves and entered extensive lymphatic networks in the submucosa associated with the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. This is the first d

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