An analysis of the cost for cultivation of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) was performed using background data obtained in the EUCHA-project (FAIR5–CT97–3894). Factors tested were fruit price, yield, plant density, harvesting capacity and payoff period. In Sweden, cultivation of Japanese quince fruits would be profitable at a fruit price of 6 SEK/kg (1 EUR = 9 SEK) if fruits were picked by hand. If fruits were instead harvested mechanically, a fruit price of 2–3 SEK/kg would result in profitable cultivation. In the short-term perspective, Japanese quince fruits seem therefore interesting for production of e.g. jam, syrup, aroma extracts and liqueur.