Abstract In crustaceans, neuroendocrine centers are located in different structures of the nervous system. One of these structures, the X-organ–sinus gland complex of the eyestalk, produces several neuropeptides that belong to the two main functionally different families: firstly, the chromatophorotropins, and secondly, a large family comprising various closely related peptides, commonly named CHH/MIH/GIH family. This review updates some aspects of the structural, biochemical and functional properties of the main hyperglycemic neuropeptide of this family, the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). The first part of this work is a survey of the neuroendocrine system that produces the neurohormones of the CHH/MIH/GIH family, focusing on recent reports that propose new possible neuroendocrine loci of CHH production, secondly we revise general aspects of the CHH biochemical, and structural characteristics and thirdly, we present a review of the role of CHH in the regulation of several physiological processes of crustaceans as well as new reports on the ontogenetic aspects of CHH. The review is centered only on one group of malacostracan crustaceans, the Decapoda.