The enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been recently used in the periodontal regenerative techniques. The present study was established to investigate the influence of EMD on human periodontal ligament cells using expression of mRNA of periodontal ligament specific gene (PDLs)17, PDLs22, type I collagen when EMD applied to periodontal ligament cells. Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from a healthy periodontium and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 10% fetal bovine serum and with ascorbic acid. Test groups were two; One adds EMD in culture media and another added EMD and Dexamethasone (DEX) in culture media. Positive control group added DEX in culture media, and negative control group adds niether of EMD nor DEX. (Biora, Sweden, 30 mg/ml) was diluted by 75 concentration to culture media. For reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), total RNA isolated on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. mRNA of PDLs17 was expressed on days 14 and 21 in EMD or DEX group, and expressed on days 7, 14 and 21 in EMD plus DEX group, the other side, expressed on days 21 in negative control group. mRNA of PDLs22 expressed on days 7, 14 and 21 in EMD group, and expressed on days 14 and 21 in DEX group, and expressed on days 7, 14 and 21 in EMD plus DEX group. Negative control group expressed on days 14 and 21. Type I collagen was expressed on all days and all groups. These results indicate that EMD promotes differentiation of periodontal ligament cells, and this is considered to offer basis that can apply EMD to periodontal tissue regeneration technique.