Summary The Indian culture and civilization dates back to 2300–1750 B.C. when the Indus Valley civilization, also known as the Harappan culture, was discovered in modern-day Punjab, Sind and areas of Rajasthan and Kathiawar. Over a period of time this cultural heritage has undergone massive changes; in the modern context, its preservation and conservation has gained utmost importance. The cultural depiction in the Indian literature has its own importance with uniform terminology used by different Indian languages. The past literary heritage of India is in the form of manuscripts available in palm leaves, cotton, silk, wood, bamboo, and copper plates. The initiative taken by the Indian Government in introducing the National Mission for Manuscripts is the right step towards preserving these culturally significant works. The Indian libraries that have these precious collections have suddenly gained importance and are benefiting financially. The ultimate aim of the Mission is to identify such rich heritage, register them wherever available, preserve them and provide the surrogates for worldwide dissemination. This article attempts to provide details on the entire gamut of issue.