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Deposition of inorganic salts from solution on flat substracts by spin-coating: theory, quantification and application to model catalysts.

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PII: 0169-4332(95)00010-0 cm . __ ED g applied surface science ELSEVIER Applied Surface Science 84 (1995) 339-346 Deposition of inorganic salts from solution on flat substrates by spin-coating: theory, quantification and application to model catalysts R.M. van Hardeveld a, P.L.J. Gunter a, L.J. van IJzendoorn b, W. Wieldraaijer ‘, E.W. Kuipers ‘, J.W. Niemantsverdriet a7 * a Schuit Institute of Catalysis, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhouen, The Netherlands b Department of Physics, Eindhouen University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhouen, The Netherlands ’ Koninklijke Shell Laboratorium, 1031 CM Amsterdam, The Netherlands Received 12 September 1994; accepted for publication 11 January 1995 Abstract The theory of spin-coating is applied to predict the amount of inorganic material that is deposited from a solution on a flat substrate on the basis of concentration, density, viscosity and evaporation rate of the solution and the spin speed applied during spin-coating. Measurements by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirm the validity of the theory. Applications of the method in the preparation of model catalysts are discussed. 1. Introduction The use of flat model supports, consisting of a thin SiO, or Al,O, layer (- l-5 nm) on a conduct- ing Si or Al substrate, respectively, instead of com- mercial porous supports has a number of benefits for catalyst characterization with surface-sensitive spec- troscopic techniques [l-9]. One is that the catalyti- cally active material is directly accessible to analysis and not hidden in the pores. Another advantage is that thin-film model supports do not suffer from charging effects since the substrates are electrically conducting. The use of a flat support also facilitates the application of techniques like atomic force mi- * Corresponding author. croscopy (ARM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)

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