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Quil-A - Chitosan: A novel mucosal adjuvant

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  • Biology


Chitosan-Quil-A enhances the immune response to rectal and vaginal delivery Quil-A - Chitosan : A novel mucosal adjuvant H. O. Alpar, S. Murdan, I. Outschoorn, V. Bramwell, S.Somavarapu The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29/39 Brunswick Square, Bloomsbury, London, WC1N 1AX. [email protected] The potential to generate both a local and systemic immune response makes the mucosal immune system an attractive site for immunization. However, mucosal administration of protein and peptide antigens generally results in a poor immune response. Successful mucosal vaccination is therefore largely dependent on the development of effective mucosal adjuvants. In recent years, many adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems have shown an ability to enhance immune responses to mucosally administered antigens. These include bacterially- derived products such as monophosphoryl lipid A, toxins and immunostimulatory DNA sequences. Cholera toxin consists of a pentameric B oligomer that binds to GM-1 receptors and an enzymatically active A subunit that is responsible for the toxicity of this agent. The toxicity of the CT holotoxin limits its usefulness as an adjuvant; therefore the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) which consists only of the non-toxic B-subunit of the cholera enterotoxin is more widely used in candidate mucosal vaccines (Goto et al 2000). Fractions prepared from Quillaja saponaria (Quil-A) can also be used as adjuvants. Quillaja saponins are known to increase the effectiveness of both injected and oral vaccines (Sjolander and Cox 1998). In previous studies we have shown that chitosan is able to enhance the effects of other adjuvants when administered intranasally (Bramwell et al 1999). In this study we have examined the effect of vaginal and rectal administration of diphtheria toxoid in the presence of the experimental combination of chitosan plus Quil-A or CTB as a known mucosal adjuvant on the system

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