# Simulation of electromagnetic descriptor models using projectors

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Simulation of electromagnetic descriptor models using projectors Banagaaya and Schilders Journal of Mathematics in Industry 2013, 3:1 http://www.mathematicsinindustry.com/content/3/1/1 RESEARCH Open Access Simulation of electromagnetic descriptor models using projectors Nicodemus Banagaaya* and Wil Schilders *Correspondence: n.banagaaya@tue.nl Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Abstract Electromagnetic descriptor models are models which lead to differential algebraic equations (DAEs). Some of these models mostly arise from electric circuit and power networks. The most frequently used modeling technique in the electric network design is the modified nodal analysis (MNA) which leads to differential algebraic equations in descriptor form. DAEs are known to be very difficult to solve numerically due to the sensitivity of their solutions to perturbations. We use the tractability index to measure this sensitivity since it can be computed numerically. Simulation of DAEs is a very difficult task especially for those with index greater than one. To solve higher-index DAEs, one needs to use multistep methods such as Backward difference formulas (BDFs). In this paper, we present an easier method of solving DAEs numerically using special projectors. This is done by first splitting the DAE system into differential and algebraic parts. We then use the existing numerical integration methods to approximate the solutions of the differential part and the solutions of the algebraic parts are computed explicitly. The desired solution of the DAE system is obtained by taking the linear combination of the solutions of the differential and algebraic parts. Our method is robust and efficient, and can be used on both small and very large systems. 1 Introduction Consider a linear Resistor-Inductor-Capacitor (RLC) electric networkwhich connects lin- ear capacitors, inductors and resistors, and independent voltage v(t) ∈ RnV and

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