Abstract Objectives To assess overactive bladder (OAB) prevalence, associated factors and implications in a young population. Methods An independent population-based study was carried out. A self-applicative questionnaire covering urinary symptoms, coping strategies, quality of life and treatment seeking behavior was developed. Results A total of 848 subjects between 15 and 55 years completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of OAB was 18.9%. Women were significantly more affected than men ( p = 0.001). All age groups were equally affected ( p = 0.152). Subjects with OAB reported significant impairment on household chores ( p = 0.009), physical activities ( p = 0.016), sleep ( p < 0.001), work ( p < 0.001), social life ( p < 0.001) and sexual life ( p < 0.001). In addition, OAB individuals present higher prevalence of depression ( p = 0.036), anxiety ( p < 0.001), shame ( p < 0.001) and tiredness ( p < 0.001) OAB was independently associated to sexual life impairment (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.20–9.39). Only 27.5% of OAB subjects sought for medical counseling. Conclusions OAB is a highly prevalent condition, even in such a young population. It affects both genders, yet it is more frequently observed in women. OAB is an important health condition, with serious impact on quality of life and sexual function. A large percentual of individuals remain unrecognized, under treated and consequently suffer for long periods of time.