Abstract Titanate nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in concentrated NaOH solution followed by HCl washing. The as-prepared nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements (BET). The results displayed that the hydrothermal treatment temperature within 110-160°C not only affected the structure of the nanotube, but also the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature. The nanotube could be obtained only in an appropriate concentration of NaOH solution. The diameter of the nanotube was 6-10 nm. The surface area of the product initially increased with increasing treatment temperature, to reach a maximum of about 630 m 2/g at 130°C, and then decreased with a further increase in temperature.