Abstract Background: Biliary tract diseases are frequent in heart transplant recipients, with significant morbidity and mortality. Since the first presentation of gallstones in this population is often acute cholecystitis, asymptomatic cholelithiasis should not be considered benign. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 18 heart transplant recipients who underwent cholecystectomy from January 1991 to June 1997. We intentionally chose to perform a straightforward open procedure when acute cholecystitis was suspected (3 patients). A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in all the other cases (15 patients) without conversion to open procedure. Conclusion: Since no significant complications were observed in our patients, we believe that transplant recipients with cholelithiasis should undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy in their posttransplantation course regardless of the symptomatic status of their biliary tract.