Abstract Background The authors retrospectively studied the incidence and characteristics of radiologically documented adjacent-segment degeneration after single-level diskectomy and subsequent cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan (Medtronic Sofamor Danek; Memphis, TN) disk prosthesis. Methods Seventy-two patients with single-level arthroplasty using the Bryan cervical disk prosthesis were evaluated. Radiological evidence of adjacent-disk disease included new formation or enlargement of anterior osteophyte, new or increasing ALL calcification, or narrowing of disk space documented on serial plain radiographs. We reported the characteristics of adjacent-segment degeneration and reviewed all of the cases. Results Among the 72 patients, 9 patients (12.5%) showed radiological evidence of adjacent-segment degeneration. The mean age was 43.3 years old, with a male-female ratio 1:3. The mean follow-up period was 24.2 (12.1-35.9) months. The mean period of onset was 16.3 months. Upper-segment degeneration was documented in 4 cases (3 new osteophyte, 1 enlargement of osteophyte), whereas lower-segment degeneration was noted in 5 cases (1 new osteophyte, 3 enlargement of osteophyte, 1 decreased disk height). Among the degenerated cases, 4 cases (44.4%) also showed various degrees of HO. Conclusions The rate of adjacent-segment degeneration was higher than that observed in previous studies. Adjacent-segment degeneration documented a tendency toward HO. A longer follow-up period is necessary to investigate and document the different types of degeneration seen at levels adjacent to artificial Bryan cervical disk prostheses.