Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), the prototypical mobilizing cytokine, induces hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization from the bone marrow in a cell-nonautonomous fashion. This process is mediated, in part, through suppression of osteoblasts and disruption of CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. The cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade have not been identified. We use mixed G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)–deficient bone marrow chimeras to show that G-CSF–induced mobilization of HSPCs correlates poorly with the number of wild-type neutrophils. We generated transgenic mice in which expression of the G-CSFR is restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage. G-CSF–induced HSPC mobilization, osteoblast suppression, and inhibition of CXCL12 expression in the bone marrow of these transgenic mice are intact, demonstrating that G-CSFR signals in monocytic cells are sufficient to induce HSPC mobilization. Moreover, G-CSF treatment of wild-type mice is associated with marked loss of monocytic cells in the bone marrow. Finally, we show that bone marrow macrophages produce factors that support the growth and/or survival of osteoblasts in vitro. Together, these data suggest a model in which G-CSFR signals in bone marrow monocytic cells inhibit the production of trophic factors required for osteoblast lineage cell maintenance, ultimately leading to HSPC mobilization.