The amygdaloid neurons of origin and the trajectory of amygdaloid fibers to the medial preoptic area of the adult male Syrian hamster were identified by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) histochemistry. After iontophoresis of HRP into the medial preoptic area, retrogradely labeled amygdaloid neurons were located in the dorsal and caudal parts of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and throughout the amygdalohippocampal area. No amygdaloid neurons were labeled after HRP applications confined to the most rostral portion of the medial preoptic area (anterior to the body of the anterior commissure). Following more caudal medial preoptic area injections (body of the anterior commissure to the suprachiasmatic nucleus) the distribution of retrogradely labeled cells in the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the amygdalohippocampal area revealed no topographic organization of the amygdalopreoptic connections. When amygdaloid neurons were labeled, the amygdalohippocampal area contained two to five times as many HRP-filled cells as the medial amygdaloid nucleus. Retrogradely transported HRP could be followed from the medial preoptic area to the amygdala through fibers in the dorsomedial quadrant of the stria terminalis. In addition, electrolytic lesions of the stria terminalis prior to iontophoresis of HRP into the medial preoptic area prevented retrograde transport to neurons in both the dorsocaudal medial amygdaloid nucleus and the amygdalohippocampal area. These results confirm earlier observations describing the location of autoradiographically labeled efferents from the medial amygdaloid nucleus to the medial preoptic area and provide new information about the restricted region within the medial amygdaloid nucleus from which these projections arise. They also suggest that, unlike the projections from the medial amygdaloid nucleus to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the efferents to the medial preoptic area travel entirely in the stria terminalis.