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A Porcine Adenovirus with Low Human Seroprevalence Is a Promising Alternative Vaccine Vector to Human Adenovirus 5 in an H5N1 Virus Disease Model

Public Library of Science
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015301
  • Research Article
  • Biology
  • Immunology
  • Immune Response
  • Microbiology
  • Immunity
  • Immunizations
  • Virology
  • Viral Vaccines
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • Model Organisms
  • Animal Models
  • Mouse
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Immunology
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccine Development
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Viral Diseases
  • Influenza
  • Zoonoses
  • Avian Influenza A Viruses
  • Medicine


Human adenovirus 5 (AdHu5) vectors are robust vaccine platforms however the presence of naturally-acquired neutralizing antibodies may reduce vector efficacy and potential for re-administration. This study evaluates immune responses and protection following vaccination with a replication-incompetent porcine adenovirus 3 (PAV3) vector as an alternative vaccine to AdHu5 using an avian influenza H5N1 disease model. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in BALB/c mice following vaccination with different doses of the PAV3 vector expressing an optimized A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin antigen (PAV3-HA) and compared with an AdHu5-HA control. PAV3-HA rapidly generated antibody responses, with significant neutralizing antibody titers on day 21, and stronger cellular immune responses detected on day 8, compared to AdHu5-HA. The PAV3-HA vaccine, administered 8 days before challenge, demonstrated improved survival and lower virus load. Evaluation of long-term vaccine efficacy at 12 months post-vaccination showed better protection with the PAV3-HA than with the AdHu5-HA vaccine. Importantly, as opposed to AdHu5, PAV3 vector was not significantly neutralized by human antibodies pooled from over 10,000 individuals. Overall, PAV3-based vector is capable of mediating swift, strong immune responses and offer a promising alternative to AdHu5.

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