1. A procedure is described for the purification of leucine dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) from Bacillus subtilis. 2. The preparation is suitable for the quantitative assay of branched-chain amino acids and their 2-oxoacid analogues. 3. The content of total branched-chain 2-oxoacids in freeze-clamped liver, kidney, heart or mammary gland of fed rats is less than 5 nmol/g fresh wt. Higher amounts are present in skeletal muscle and arterial blood (25 +/- 4 nmol per g fresh wt., and 33 +/- 6 nmol per ml respectively; means +/- S.D. of 3 and 11 animals respectively). The values are not significantly affected by starvation for 24 h. 4. Arteriovenous difference measurements show that considerable amounts of branched-chain 2-oxoacids are released by skeletal muscle into the circulation and similar amounts are removed by the liver (about 1 mmol/24 h in a 400 g rat).